Gcmedica Enterprise Ltd.
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What is Endotracheal Intubation? Why Do We Need to Complete This Process?

Endotracheal intubation is the process of inserting the windpipe into the mouth and then into the airway. This is done so that the patient can be put on a ventilator to assist breathing during anesthesia, sedation or serious illness. The tube is then connected to a ventilator, which pushes air into the lungs to deliver breath to the patient.

This is done because the patient is unable to maintain the airway, breathe on their own without help, or both. This may be because they are under anesthesia and cannot breathe on their own during the procedure, or they may be too sick or injured to provide the body with enough oxygen without help.

1. Use of endotracheal intubation

Before endotracheal intubation is used, the patient is usually sedated or unconscious due to disease or injury, which allows the mouth and airway to relax. The patient usually has a flat back, and the person inserting the tube stands at the head of the bed, looking at the patient's feet. The patient's mouth is gently opened and lighted instruments are used to unobstruct the tongue and light up the throat, gently guiding the trachea down the throat and into the airway.

There is a small balloon around the tube, which is inflated to hold the tube in place and prevent air from escaping. Once the balloon is inflated, the tube is firmly positioned in the airway and tied to the mouth or secured with tape.

Successful placement of the lungs is first checked with a stethoscope and often with a chest X-ray. In the field, for example when the breathing tube is activated and placed by a paramedic, a special device is used which changes colour when properly placed.

2. The use of endotracheal intubation

Endotracheal intubation is required during general anesthesia. Anesthetic drugs paralyze the muscles of the body, including the diaphragm, which makes it impossible to breathe without a ventilator. Most patients are extubated, meaning the breathing tube is removed immediately after surgery. If patients are seriously ill or have trouble breathing on their own, they may stay on the ventilator longer.

After most surgeries, medication is given to reverse the effects of anesthesia, which allows the patient to wake up quickly and start breathing on their own. For some procedures, such as open-heart surgery, the patient is not given reverse anesthesia and wakes himself up slowly. These patients need to remain on ventilators until they remain awake to protect their airways and breathe on their own.

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